Tuesday, May 29, 2012

Top 10 Longest Ruling Non-Royal National Leaders

In each and ever country there are many national leaders but only a few are very famous amongst them and only a few last long as a leader. But it's not the case with the royals since there is no competition for their post and mostly the next one to be crowned is chosen from the same family itself. But, when it comes to Non-royal national leader, it's the way they rule the country makes them to hold the post for such a long time. So, here we have collected the top 10 longest ruling of non-royal national leaders in the world.

01. Fidel Castro - 52 years and 62 days

Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz is a Cuban revolutionary and politician, having held the position of Prime Minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976, and then President from 1976 to 2008. He also served as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba from the party’s foundation in 1961 until 2011. Politically a Marxist-Leninist, under his administration the Republic of Cuba was converted into a one-party socialist state, with industry and business being nationalized under state ownership and socialist reforms implemented in all areas of society. On the international stage, he also served as the Secretary-General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1979 to 1983 and 2006 to 2008.

02. Chiang Kai-shek - 46 years and 177 days

Chiang Kai-shek was a political and military leader of 20th-century China. Chiang was an influential member of the Nationalist Party, the Kuomintang (KMT), and was a close ally of Sun Yat-sen. He became the Commandant of the Kuomintang’s Whampoa Military Academy, and took Sun’s place as leader of the KMT when Sun died in 1925. In 1926, Chiang led the Northern Expedition to unify the country, becoming China’s nominal leader. He served as Chairman of the National Military Council of the Nationalist government of the Republic of China (ROC) from 1928 to 1948. Chiang led China in the Second Sino-Japanese War, during which the Nationalist government’s power severely weakened, but his prominence grew. Unlike Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek was socially conservative, promoting traditional Chinese culture in the New Life Movement and rejecting western democracy and the nationalist democratic socialism that Sun Yat-sen and some other members of the KMT embraced in favor of a nationalist authoritarian government.

03. Kim Il-sung - 45 years and 302 days

Kim Il-sung was the ruler of North Korea, officially the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994. He held the posts of Prime Minister from 1948 to 1972 and President from 1972 to his death. He was also the leader of the Workers’ Party of Korea from 1949 to 1994 (titled as chairman from 1949 to 1966 and as general secretary after 1966). His tenure as leader of North Korea has often been described as autocratic, and he established an all-pervasive cult of personality. From the mid-1960s, he promoted his self-developed Juche variant of communist national organization. In the Library of Congress Country Study on North Korea in 2009, he was described as “one of the most intriguing figures of the twentieth century”. He outlived Joseph Stalin by four decades, Mao Zedong by two, and remained in power during the terms of office of six South Korean presidents, 7 Soviet leaders, ten U.S. presidents, and twenty-one Japanese prime ministers.

04. Muammar Gaddafi - 42 years and 49 days

Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi, commonly known as Muammar Gaddafi or Colonel Gaddafi, was the official ruler of the Libyan Arab Republic from 1969 to 1977 and then the “Brother Leader” of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya from 1977 to 2011. Gaddafi seized power in a bloodless military coup in 1969 and served as the country’s head of state until 1977, when he stepped down from his official executive role as Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council of Libya, and claimed subsequently to be merely a symbolic figurehead. He styled himself as “Leader of the Revolution”; in 2008 a meeting of traditional African rulers bestowed on him the title “King of Kings”. A leading advocate for a United States of Africa, he served as Chairperson of the African Union (AU) from 2 February 2009 to 31 January 2010.

05. Omar Bongo - 41 years and 155 days

Omar Bongo was promoted to key positions as a young official under Gabon’s first President Leon M’ba in the 1960s, before being elevated to Vice-President from 1966 to 1967, eventually succeeding M’ba to become Gabon’s second President upon the latter’s death in 1967. Bongo headed the single-party regime of the Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG) until 1990, when he was forced to introduce multi-party politics in Gabon in the face of great public pressure. He then survived intense opposition to his rule in the early 1990s, succeeding in consolidating power again mainly by bringing most of the major opposition leaders of the 1990s over to his side. He was re-elected in extremely controversial 1993 presidential election, and again in the subsequent elections of 1998 and 2005, with his respective majorities increasing and the opposition becoming more subdued on each election. After Cuban President Fidel Castro stepped down in February 2008, Bongo became the world’s longest-serving non-monarch ruler. He is still one of the longest serving rulers in history.

06. Enver Hoxha - 40 years and 171 days

Enver Hoxha was the leader of Albania from the end of World War II until his death in 1985, as the First Secretary of the Party of Labour of Albania. He also served as Prime Minister of Albania from 1944 to 1954, Minister of Defence, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Chairman of the Democratic Front from 1945 to his death, and as Commander-in-Chief of the Albanian armed forces from 1944 to his death. Hoxha’s leadership was characterized by his proclaimed firm adherence to anti-revisionist Marxism–Leninism from the mid-1970s onwards. After his break with Maoism in the 1976–1978 period, numerous Maoist parties declared themselves Hoxhaist. The International Conference of Marxist–Leninist Parties and Organizations (Unity & Struggle) is the most well known collection of these parties today.

07. Francisco Franco - 39 years and 50 days

Francisco Franco y Bahamonde, better known under the name of Franco, was a Spanish general, dictator and the leader of the Nationalist military rebellion in the Spanish Civil War, and totalitarianhead of state of Spain, from October 1936 until his death in November 1975. He came to power while recognizing the principles of the far-right Falange movement, although this was for propaganda reasons, as he belonged to no political party before becoming Head of State. As head of state, Franco used the titles Caudillo de España and Generalísimo, but also was called formally as His Excellency, The Head of State.

08. Gnassingbé Eyadéma - 37 years and 297 days

General Gnassingbé Eyadéma was the President of Togo from 1967 until his death in 2005. He participated in two successful military coups, in January 1963 and January 1967, and became President on April 14, 1967. As President, he created a political party, the Rally of the Togolese People (RPT), and headed a single-party regime until the early 1990s, when reforms leading to multiparty elections began. Although his power was seriously challenged by the events of the early 1990s, he ultimately consolidated power again and won multiparty presidential elections in 1993, 1998, and 2003; the opposition boycotted the 1993 election and denounced the 1998 and 2003 election results as fraudulent. At the time of his death, Eyadéma was the longest-serving ruler in Africa.

09. Paul Biya - 36 years and 321 days

Paul Biya is a Cameroonian politician who has been the President of Cameroon since 6 November 1982. A native of Cameroon’s south, Biya rose rapidly as a bureaucrat under President Ahmadou Ahidjo in the 1960s, serving as Secretary-General of the Presidency from 1968 to 1975 and then as Prime Minister of Cameroon from 1975 to 1982. He succeeded Ahidjo as President upon the latter’s surprise resignation in 1982 and consolidated power in a 1983–1984 power struggle with his predecessor. Biya has maintained Cameroon’s close relationship with France, Cameroon’s former colonial ruler.

10. Josip Broz Tito - 36 years and 157 days

Marshal Josip Broz Tito was a Yugoslav revolutionary and statesman, serving in various roles from 1945 until his death in 1980. While his presidency has been criticized as authoritarian, due to his successful economic and diplomatic policies, Tito was seen by most as a benevolent dictator, and was a popular public figure both in Yugoslavia and abroad. Viewed as a unifying symbol, his internal policies successfully maintained the peaceful coexistence of the nations of the Yugoslav federation. He gained international attention as the chief leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, working with Jawaharlal Nehru of India and Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt.

If We Could Use Photoshop in Real Life...

Photoshop is the ultimate in photo editing software. It's used by many people to manipulate photos or images. Some people do it as a profession and some people do it as a passion. But there are some people who do it just for fun and popularity. With Photoshop, anything is possible. Just imagine what would happen if we could use Photoshop in real life....

Top 10 Most Dangerous Guns In The World

A gun is a muzzle or breech-loaded projectile-firing weapon. There are various definitions depending on the nation and branch of service. The term "gun" has also taken on a more generic meaning, by which it has come to refer to any one of a number of trigger-initiated, hand-held, and hand-directed implements, especially with an extending bore, which thereby resemble the class of weapon in either form or concept. So here we bring you the 10 most deadliest gun in the world.

1. Uzi Sub-machine Gun

The UZI Sub-machine gun is an Israeli gun from the Israeli open bolt family built by the Israeli Military Industries. It was designed by an Israeli General Uziel Gal and was first commissioned in the year 1950. Since then it has been used in various wars from the Suez Canal crisis to the Vietnam War and the War of the Falklands. This gun weighs 3.5 kg and has the capacity to fire 600 rounds in a minute. There are many variants of this gun and it is exported to over 90 countries of the world.

2. DSR-Precision DSR 50 Sniper Rifle

This anti-material German rifle was designed by Ingolf Reuter and developed by a German firearm company, DSR-Precision GmbH. The barrel length of this rifle is 35.4 inches and it weighs a little more than 10kg. With .500BMG caliber cartridge this higher end version of the DSR 1 retains many of features of its earlier prototype. It has a monopod, free floating barrel, a fully maneuverable cheek rest, buttstock, foregrip and a magazine holder infront.

3. FN – 2000 Assault Rifle

Designed by Belgian FN Herstal the FN-2000 is a 3.6 kg fully automatic and gas operated assault rifle launched at the IDEX, an exhibition of military items, in Abu Dhabi. This modern day weapon equipped with NATO box magazine has thirty round cartridges with 5.56*45mm of ammunition. The popularity of the rifle made the company launch many of its prototypes which include F2000 tactical, FS2000, F2000S and F2000 Tactical TR.

4. Kalashnikov AK-47 Assault Rifle

Mikhail Kalashnikov of the erstwhile USSR began designing the AK-47 assault rifle in the year 1945 but it was first used in 1949. The gas operated weapon working on the principle of selective-fire weighs 5.21 kg and contains a 7.62*39 mm M43/M67 cartridge. It fires at a very high rate of 600 rounds every min. Even after six decades the model and its variants are the most popular and widely used assault rifles in the world. This due to its low production cost, easy usage and durability.

5. Thompson M1921 Sub-machine Gun

The Thompson is an American sub-machine gun invented by John T Thompson in 1919. Be it on semi-automatic or fully automatic mode, this gun can fire up to 1200 rounds every minute. It is a very easy to handle gun with its sleek frame and ergonomics. With a .45 ACP cartridge it can fire with precision at a target 50 meters away. With more than 10 different models available it is highly preferred by civilians too.

6. MG3 Machine Gun

The MG3 is a German General Purpose machine gun. Its first variant was launched in 1958 Rheinmetall arms factory and its design dates back to the World War II era. With a 7.62*51 mm NATO cartridge this gun weighs 10.5 kg. In order to make its operation easy this recoil-operated gun is placed atop a field tripod. It also comes in handy when enemies have to be indirectly engaged. The gun is capable of firing 1000-1300 in a minute.

7. Heckler and Koch HK416 Assault Rifle

The 416 Assault Rifle was designed by Ernst Mauch for the German Company Heckler and Koch in collaboration with the Delta Force of the United States Army in 2005. The gun is equipped with a NATO cartridge of caliber 5.56*45 mm. The gun functions on the principle of gas-piston and has the capacity to fire 850 rounds each minute. It has various civil variants as well and is one of the most popular assault rifles used by the police and military of over 15 countries in the world.

8. Heckler Koch HK MG4/MG 43 Machine Gun

The MG4 is a light machine gun developed by German manufacturers Heckler and Koch. An advanced version of the MG43 it was developed towards the late 1990’s but was first introduced in the market in September 2001. This belt fed machine gun employs a 5.56*45 mm NATO cartridge that is capable of producing 885 rounds/min. Its variants are weighed between 7.7kg- 8.55kg.

9. XM307 ACSW Advanced Heavy Machine Gun

The ACSW Advanced Heavy Machine Gun can be used as a two-man portable gun and also as a vehicle mounted gun. This light weight machine gun can destroy a human target 2000 meters away and a watercraft, light armored vehicle and helicopter 1000 meters away. This highly accurate action-bolt was discontinued in 2007.

10. Accuracy International AS50 Sniper Rifle

Accuracy International AS50 rifle, is a firearm of British origin. This semi-automatic weapon is capable of firing 5 rounds every 1.6 seconds and employs a .50Bmg caliber cartridge. It can shoot a target 1500 m away. The weapon is extremely accurate, highly transportable and lightweight. It can be disassembled in a very short time and can also be serviced without tools.